What is meant by welding position is the placement of the workpiece against the position of the welder by adjusting the construction conditions in the field and the type of groove used. Horizontal welding is also known as uniform welding where the position of the workpiece is made upright and the direction of the electrode follows the horizontal. Horizontal welding position is a relatively easy welding for welders with various welding processes. This position is easier when compared to vertical welding or overhead welding. The welding position that can be done by a welder becomes a reference for the level of competency of the welder according to the type of welding process he masters.
Broadly speaking there I group the welding positions into 4, namely
- Position under hand / Down-hand
- Horizontal Position
- Vertical Position
- Position above head / Overhead
Horizontal Welding Position standard
According to ISO standards there are 2 kinds of horizontal welding, namely PB for fillet joints and PC for butt joints. Meanwhile, according to the ASME standard code, horizontal/horizontal position welding is written with code number 2.
To make a joint or welding connection in a horizontal position using an arc welding machine (eg SMAW, GTAW, GMAW, FCAW) it is necessary to pay attention to the settings of the welding parameters. Such as current (amperes) and welding speed. If the amperage is too high and the welding speed is low, it will produce a high heat input. Heat input affects the electric arc. Because if the electric arc is too hot then the liquid will melt down following the force of gravity.
In addition to heat input, the welder must also pay attention to the type of swing. Swing or in welding terms called weaving is useful for regulating the melted liquid so that it does not slide following gravity.
For more details, below are pictures for all horizontal position welding and their explanations.
Welding position drawing of 2F, 2F pipe, 2FR pipe, 2G plate, 2G pipe:
1. Position 2F/PB
Welding fillet joints (plate with plate) with the electrode facing forward / horizontally with the direction of movement to the right or left.
2. Position 2F Pipe/PB
Weld the connection between the pipe and the plate with the direction of the welding electrode facing forward / horizontally.
3. Position 2FR Pipe/PB
The position of the workpiece, see in the picture above, the welding of the plate connection with the pipe and the direction of the electrode facing forward horizontally, as welding progresses the workpiece is rotated until the entire weld path is closed
4. Position 2G Plate/PC
Welding the butt joint plate with the plate with the position of the workpiece laying see in the picture above. The welding process starts from making the root, filling and covering. Especially for SMAW welding, the process of making the root must use an electrode wire that is designed for the manufacture of the root.
5. Position 2G Pipe/PC
Butt joint welding is a horizontal connection of pipe with pipe, here the material (pipe) is not rotated, but the welder moves along the path of the weld.
2F is the horizontal position of the corner joint. For 2F welding, the workpiece position is perpendicular. The slope of the electrode is 45° with respect to the vertical line and 10 to 20° with respect to the vertical line towards the electrode path.
Horizontal Position (2G)
2G pipe welding is a horizontal position welding, i.e. the pipe is in an upright position and the welding is carried out horizontally around the pipe. The angle position of the 2G pipe welding electrode is 90 degrees. The length of the electrode movement is between 1-2 times the diameter of the electrode. If it is too long, it can result in poor weld quality. The arc length is kept as short as possible, i.e. times the diameter of the welding electrode. The filling welding is carried out in a circular motion and endeavored to burn well on both sides of the seam so that defects do not occur. This movement is repeated for the next filling.