understanding a pipeline
A pipeline is a structure designed to transport liquid, gaseous, and solid (bulk) products. Pipelines consist of straight sections of pipes tightly interconnected, parts, shut-off and control valves, instrumentation, automation, supports and suspensions, fasteners, gaskets and seals, as well as materials used for thermal and anti-corrosion insulation.
Pipeline parts are the connecting parts that are used in the construction of pipelines for various purposes, necessary for bending, bending, bending, changing the diameter of the pipes and in the case when the pipeline is temporarily not used. Parts are connected when installing the pipeline, as a rule, butt welding.
Pipeline parts are made from various grades of steel: carbon, heat resistant, stainless. The decision on the use of a particular material is made by the design organization. In the vast majority of cases, the material of the pipe fittings coincides with the material used in the pipe system. Distinguish between industrial (technological) and main pipeline transport, depending on the territorial location and destination. Gas and oil pipelines transporting products from production sites to processing and consumption sites, namely to factories or seaports for subsequent unloading into tankers and further transportation, belong to the main pipeline transport. Finished petroleum products are sent from refineries through main product lines to consumption areas.
More than a third of the pipelines of industrial enterprises are technological pipelines. Technological pipelines transport liquid, steam, gas, which are considered raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, industrial waste or products required for the correct flow of the technological process. In addition, these pipelines transport fire hazardous and harmful products at different temperatures and pressures.
The classification of technological pipelines occurs according to the following criteria:
- Location: inter-workshop, intra-workshop.
- Laying method: above-ground, above-ground, underground.
- Internal pressure: gravity (gravity), vacuum, low pressure, medium pressure, high pressure.
- The temperature of the transported substance: cryogenic, cold, normal, warm, hot, overheated.
- The aggressiveness of the transported substance: non-aggressive, slightly aggressive (slightly aggressive), moderately aggressive, aggressive.
- Transported substance: steam pipelines, water pipelines, oil pipelines, gas pipelines, oxygen pipelines, fuel oil pipelines, acetylene pipelines, oil pipelines, gas pipelines, acid pipelines, alkali pipelines, ammonia pipelines, etc.
- Material execution: steel, steel with an internal or external coating, from non-ferrous metals, cast iron, from non-metallic materials.
- Way of connection: one-piece, detachable.
The scope of pipeline fittings is diverse: heavy chemical industry, petrochemical, gas; production of various specialized drugs; electric power industry (TPP and NPP); exploration, production, processing and storage of oil and gas, as well as other minerals; metallurgical and steel production; shipbuilding, automotive and food industries; civil engineering and utilities (central heating and water supply, drainage and hydro power facilities, distribution, irrigation systems, transport and pumping stations, wastewater treatment plants, water treatment and water treatment, regulation systems.) Some factory manufactures pipeline parts from various steels: carbon, low alloy, alloy steels, with increased corrosion and cold resistance, from non-metallic materials, as well as with various protective coatings.