Development of geographical information system GIS
At present, the development of the geographical information system GIS is dominated by the private company. They recruit skilled experts from the campus and search opportunities (markets) for their products both in private institutions and government. The number of GIS developer companies is increased from a relatively small software house level to large companies like ESRI.
ESRI (environmental systems research institute) founded by Jack Dangermond & Laura Dangennond in 1969. According to ESRI industry analysts, it became the leading provider in the GIS system and the most dominant company. In 1981 ESRI released ARC / INFO. This tool successfully implemented ideas about the separation of attributes and spatial. As has been done by its predecessor device; CGIS from Canada. Besides that ARC / INFO also succeeded in marrying standard relational database technology (INFO) with spatial data processing software (ARC). In the mid-1980s, ARC / INFO
supports multiple operating system platforms. And in 1986, the PC version of ARC / INFO was developed. Because many PCs are scattered & this device is quite reliable, then ARC / INFO is known throughout the world.
In 1991, ESRI developed the desktop version of ArcView. Display ArcView features that are more interesting, interactive, and have a high level of ease to more famous and often used today. Almost all GIS application users know ArcView. At this time, ArcView was further developed to reach previously unimaginable fields. This further development of ArcView is provided in the form of additional modules or extensions to meet application needs special.
application of geographical information system GIS in internet
Website, portal, online business & maps (which provides products goods & services and information about global conditions, networks the path along with the locations of important objects is very possible required by the user. An example is Google Earth, Google Ocean, Google Map, Second Map, Indo 30 minutes, Cyber Map, Finance Map, Geoplan, and many more).
application of geographical information system GIS for utilities
Utilities (community management and customers):
a) Electricity network. A
b) Drinking / clean water network.
c) Telephone / telecommunications / internet cable networks.
d) Cable TV (service) network.
e) Gas and petroleum pipelines.
application of geographical information system GIS for transportation
a) Road network.
b) Railway network.
c) A network of river and sea roads.
d) Vehicle fleet transportation services/travel bureau.
e) Public transportation services and cargo.
application of geographical information system GIS for Politics, Social and cultural
a) Government institutions for data management for elections and regional elections.
b) NGOs or political parties that monitor election data and regional election (provide analysis of the supporting base, potential the number of voters, and the final results based on the administrative area certain or to the level of the polling station).
c) NGOs or political parties that monitor and examine related data community and industry both micro and macro.
application of geographical information system GIS for Banking & finance
a) Managers/banking groups (inventorying asset data, bank locations, branch offices, ATMs, service areas, the location of customers, competitors and supporting entities).
b) Managers of non-bank financial services (credit supply/ feasibility/borrowing of money & goods, collection services).
c) Pawnshop institutions (valuables).
d) Taxation institutions (service area, office location, tax potential, tax object).
e) Land agency (service area, parcel/land status, measurement of parcels and issuance of certificates).
application of geographical information system GIS for retail
Supermarket, franchise, retail and supermarket businesses (service area, the customer’s existing location, and expanding the business to reach potential new customers, the location of supporters, the location of competitors, purchasing power community in the service area, access routes).