what is Heat affected zone

what is Heat Affected Zone – HAZ in welding?

Base metal vs HAZ Metals in welding results can be categorized into 3 parts, namely: base metal (initial workpiece), heat affected zone (heat affected area) and weld metal (weld metal). The base metal is a base metal part where heat and welding temperature do not cause changes in the structure or properties of the metal. The heat affected zone (HAZ) is a base metal that is adjacent to the weld metal which undergoes a thermal cycle of heating and cooling during the welding process so that this area is the most critical of the welded joint. Weld metal is a part of metal which at the time of welding melts and then freezes, the composition of the weld metal consists of the parent metal component and the added material from the electrode. The heat affected zone is formed during welding and includes the area of the material next to the weld, in which metallographic examinations can still detect structural changes through the welding process. These microstructural changes also change the properties of the material, so that the smallest possible HAZ is sought. This is achieved with low energy range, ie as concentrated as possible heat input at high welding speed,[…]

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carbon equivalent ce calculator

carbon equivalent formula and ce calculator

Why carbon content is important? The most widely used metal material in the industry is carbon steel and its alloys. Carbon steel is compounded based on carbon content and alloying elements. carbon content is one of the elements with the most influence on the nature or characteristics of a metal. The more carbon content, the metal becomes stronger and harder. however, hard material has brittle characteristics or is less resilient and increases the likelihood of cracking in the weld joint area. Explanations of the carbon equivalent One of the biggest problems in the welding technology of high-strength fine-grained steels is cold cracking. In general, the cold cracking tendency of micro-alloyed fine-grained steels is low. However, if higher carbon contents are present, there may be hydrogen-favored cold cracking in the heat affected zone. Since other alloying elements promote cold cracking in addition to carbon, carbon equivalents are often used to estimate crack sensitivity. There are numerous formulas for describing the carbon equivalent, in which the individual alloying elements are weighted differently. The carbon equivalent may thus generally be understood as a measure of the inclination of a cold cracking material depending on its chemical composition. It also serves as a basis[…]

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weldability of steel

Weldability of steel and its carbon content

Which materials are weldable? Since the possibility of welding and welding safety can be strongly influenced by machines and aids, the consideration of the basic weldability of a substance is usually most important. It may happen that a substance that is not suitable for fusion welding, can be very well suited for a pressure welding. The weldability can therefore always be evaluated only in relation to a welding process . Weldability of components The weldability of components is decided on the basis of three criteria. Weldability is the ability of the fabric to be inseparably linked to the same or different fabric when using a welding technique. The possibility of welding refers to adequate equipment for carrying out the planned welding process, ie it is aimed at a suitable workplace. Welding reliability weighs the likelihood of deformation or other errors due to welding influences. Which properties should a weldable material have? “Weldability is available if, under consideration of qualitative and economic aspects, a spot welding meeting the requirements can be produced.” The most important ability of a substance is that it regains its strength after welding and after cooling. At the same time, however, high hot workability is beneficial for[…]

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how to ask salary increase

How to ask a salary increase?

What to say to the head to get a salary increase and not fly out of work. According to my experience, all employee want to get a salary increase or job promotion. And some of them received an increase. Therefore, the easiest way to achieve a salary increase is to ask. But you need to act with the mind. Choose a moment In order for the operation to be successful, you need to contact the supervisor about the salary increase when several factors work: The company has a resource for a salary increase: sales have not fallen, the budget has not been cut, funding “from the center” has come. Recently, you have not had obvious failures. Otherwise, it will be difficult to explain why you should pay more. the boss is not busy. In the case of a raid, he has to solve many questions at the same time, and your attempts to distract him will only make him angry. The boss has a good mood. Of course, the ideal boss is always fair and impartial, but most of us are led by people, not robots. Prepare arguments Put yourself in the place of your boss and think about which[…]

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